Pharmacogenetics has arrived in clinical psychiatric practice with the FDA approval of the AmpliChip CYP450 Test that genotypes for two cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 2C19 (CYP2C19) genes. Other pharmacogenetic tests, including those focused on pharmacodynamic genes, are far from ready for clinical application. CYP2D6 is important for the metabolism of many antidepressants and antipsychotics, and CY2C19 is important for some antidepressant metabolism. Poor metabolizers (PMs), lacking the enzyme, account for up to 7% of Caucasians for CYP2D6 and up to 25% of East Asians for CYP2C19. Patients having three or more active CYP2D6 alleles (up to 29% in North Africa and the Middle East), are called CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers (UMs). CYP2D6 phenotypes (particularly PMs) are probably important in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), venlafaxine, typical antipsychotics, and risperidone. The CYP2C19 PM phenotype is probably important in patients taking TCAs and perhaps citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline. On the basis of the literature and the authors’ clinical experience, the authors provide provisional recommendations for identifying and treating CYP2D6 PMs, CYP2C19 PMs, and CYP2D6 UMs. The next few years will determine whether CYP2D6 genotyping is beneficial for patients taking the new drugs aripiprazole, duloxetine, and atomoxetine. Practical recommendations for dealing with laboratories offering CYP2D6 and CYP2C29 genotyping are provided.