Exposure therapy is the treatment of choice for many of the anxiety disorders, especially when avoidance is a prominent symptom. Approximately one-half of patients with a fear of flying (FOF) meet the criteria for panic disorder and about one-half meet criteria for specific phobia, all of whom have been shown to respond to VRE therapy (1, 2). Two randomized clinical trials have been published comparing VR to in vivo exposure for the FOF (1, 2) and indicated that VRE was as effective as standard in vivo exposure. Follow-up data indicate that treatment gains were maintained at 6 and 12 months posttreatment. VRE has the advantages of conducting time-consuming exposure therapy without leaving the therapist's office and offering more control over exposure stimuli and less exposure of the patient to possible harm or embarrassment. For the FOF, for example, airplane "trips" can be conducted by VRE without leaving the therapist's office, and the appropriate stimuli presented. If the patient is not ready for turbulence, we can guarantee no turbulence but can introduce it at the appropriate point in therapy. The therapist can see on the computer monitor what the patient views in the head-mounted display and therefore can comment appropriately and encourage continued exposure until anxiety decreases. For virtual environments such as the Virtual Iraq with loud audio stimuli (e.g., explosions and gunfire), the therapist communicates with the patient with a microphone heard over the earphones. Some environments also include vibrations and odors delivered at the appropriate points in the scenes. For the FOF, the patient can feel the vibrations of the airplane engine and turbulence from a speaker mounted in the raised platform underneath the chair.