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INFLUENTIAL PUBLICATIONS   |    
A Guide to Guidelines for the Treatment of PTSD and Related Conditions
David Forbes; Mark Creamer; Jonathan I. Bisson; Judith A. Cohen; Bruce E. Crow; Edna B. Foa; Mathew J. Friedman; Terence M. Keane; Harold S. Kudler; Robert J. Ursano
FOCUS 2013;11:414-427. doi:10.1176/appi.focus.11.3.414
Abstract

In recent years, several practice guidelines have appeared to inform clinical work in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although there is a high level of consensus across these documents, there are also areas of apparent difference that may lead to confusion among those to whom the guidelines are targeted—providers, consumers, and purchasers of mental health services for people affected by trauma. The authors have been responsible for developing guidelines across three continents (North America, Europe, and Australia). The aim of this article is to examine the various guidelines and to compare and contrast their methodologies and recommendations to aid clinicians in making decisions about their use.

(Reprinted with permission Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2010; 23:537-552) 

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Table 1.Clinical Practice Guidelines for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Table Footer Note

Note. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; ASD = acute stress disorder.

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Table 2.Methodologies Used in Clinical Practice Guidelines for PTSD
Table Footer Note

Note. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; ASD = acute stress disorder; IOM = Institute of Medicine; VA/DoD = Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense; APA = American Psychiatric Association; NICE = National Institute of Clinical Excellence; NHMRC = National Health and Medical Research Council; ISTSS = International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies; AACAP = American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; RCT = randomized controlled trial.

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Table 3.Levels of Evidence
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Note. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; IOM = Institute of Medicine; VA/DoD = Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense; APA = American Psychiatric Association; NICE = National Institute of Clinical Excellence; NHMRC = National Health and Medical Research Council; ISTSS = International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies; AACAP = American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; RCT = randomized controlled trial; LOCF = last observation carried forward.

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Table 4.Grading the Strength of Recommendations
Table Footer Note

Note. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; IOM = Institute of Medicine; VA/DoD = Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense; APA = American Psychiatric Association; NICE = National Institute of Clinical Excellence; NHMRC = National Health and Medical Research Council; ISTSS = International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies; AACAP = American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; RCT = randomized controlled trial; GPP = good practice point.

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Table 5.Key Recommendations of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for PTSD
Table Footer Note

Note. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; ASD = acute stress disorder; IOM = Institute of Medicine; VA/DoD = Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense; APA = American Psychiatric Association; NICE = National Institute of Clinical Excellence; NHMRC = National Health and Medical Research Council; ISTSS = International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies; AACAP = American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; RCT = randomized controlled trial; TFCBT = trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy; CT = cognitive therapy; CPT = cognitive processing therapy; SIT = stress inoculation training; EMDR = eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; PD = psychological debriefing; IRT = imagery rehearsal therapy; SSRI – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SNRI = serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; TCA = tricyclic antidepressants; MAOIs; monoamine oxidase inhibitors; GPP = good practice point; MS = minimal standard; OP = option.

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References

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Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. (2007).  Australian Guidelines for the Treatment of Adults with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder .  Melbourne, Australia:  Author.
 
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[CrossRef]
 
Cohen  J. A.;  Bukstein  O.;  Walter  H.;  Benson  R. S.;  Christman  A.;  Farchione  T. R.  et al. (2010).  Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 49, 414–430.
 
Field  M. J.;  Lohr  K. N. (1990).  Clinical practice guidelines: Directions for a new program .  Washington, DC:  National Academies Press.
 
Foa  E. B.;  Keane  T. M.;  Friedman  M. J.;  Cohen  J. (Eds.). (2008).  Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd ed.) .  New York:  Guilford Press.
 
Institute of Medicine. (2007).  Treatment of PTSD: Assessment of the evidence.  Washington, DC:  National Academies Press.
 
Ironson  G.;  Freund  B.;  Strauss  J. L.;  Williams  J. (2002).  Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure.  Journal of Clinical Psychology , 58, 113–128.
[CrossRef]
 
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2005).  Post-traumatic stress disorder .  London:  Royal College of Psychiatrists and The British Psychological Society.
 
Okoli  C.;  Pawlowski  S. D. (2004).  The Delphi method as a research tool: An example, design considerations and applications.  Information & Management , 42, 15–29.
 
Raine  R.;  Sanderson  C.;  Black  N. (2005).  Developing clinical guidelines: A challenge to current methods.  British Medical Journal , 331, 631–633.
 
Raine  R.;  Sanderson  C.;  Hutchings  A.;  Carter  S.;  Larkin  K.;  Black  N. (2004).  An experimental study of determinants of group judgments in clinical guideline development.  Lancet , 364, 429–437.
 
Sniderman  A. D.;  Furberg  C. D. (2009).  Why guideline-making requires reform.  Journal of the American Medical Association , 301, 429–431.
 
VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline Working Group. (2003).  Management of post-traumatic stress .  Washington, DC:  VA Office of Quality and Performance.
 
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