For maximum treatment benefit, benzodiazepines must be given on a regular schedule to attain relatively constant blood levels. Although the use of benzodiazepines on an as-needed basis is attractive to patients who may want to take a medication only when they are symptomatic, and to physicians concerned about "addiction" or "dependence," this practice not only is ineffective but may also be harmful for two reasons. First, patients may experience withdrawal effects when the medication wears off, which will be hard to distinguish from endogenous symptoms of anxiety. Second, patients usually take as-needed benzodiazepines in anticipation of facing feared situations, and this impairs their ability to desensitize themselves to these situations, consistent with recent studies that patients taking as-needed benzodiazpines have worse outcomes with CBT than those taking regularly scheduled benzodiazepines (4). Hence, taking benzodiazepines once or twice daily (e.g., clonazepam once or twice a day) will separate the cue of pill taking from any anxiolytic effect in stressful situations during the day and optimize the patient's ability to improve self-management of anxiety. Available evidence shows that individuals with panic disorder taking benzodiazepines chronically generally lower rather than increase their dose over time (i.e., there is no dose escalation or risk of addiction) (5), and there is no evidence that use of these agents increases the risk of abuse of or dependence on other substances in individuals who do not already have a substance use problem.