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Bremner J, Southwick S, Charney D: The neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: an integration of animal and human research. In Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Comprehensive Text. Edited by Saigh P, Bremner J. Needham Heights, MA, Allyn & Bacon, 1999, pp 103—143. ** This is the most comprehensive of the recent reviews of the neurobiology of PTSD incorporating an extensive discussion of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems, neuroendocrine systems, and the impact of stress upon neurocognitive biology.
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Chemtob CM, Roitblat HL, Hamada RS, Muraoka MY, Carlson JG, Bauer GB: Compelled attention: the effects of viewing trauma-related stimuli on concurrent task performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress
Morgan C, Grillon C: Abnormal mismatch negativity in women with sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45:827—832. ** Using an auditory evoked potential "oddball" mismatch negativity paradigm, this study describes differences in preconscious auditory processing at time point P50 in patients with PTSD. This builds upon earlier data reporting similar differences in PTSD patients at time point P300 which is instead a measure of attentional processing. These studies provide a template from which future fMRI studies of PTSD patients might be constructed.
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Bremner JD, Randall P, Vermetten E, Staib L, Bronen RA, Capelli S, Mazure CM, McCarthy G, Charney DS, Innis RB: MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry
Bremner J, Narayan M, Staib L, Southwick S, McGlashan T, Charney D: Neural correlates of memories of childhood sexual abuse in women with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry
Liberzon I, Taylor SF, Amdur R, Jung TD, Chamberlain KR, Minoshima S, Koeppa RA, Fig LM: Brain activation in PTSD in response to trauma-related stimuli. Biol Psychiatry
Shin LM, McNally RJ, Kosslyn SM, Thompson WL, Rauch SL, Alpert NM, Metzger LJ, Lasko NB, Orr SP, Pitman RK: Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: a PET investigation. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:575—584. * This study illustrates the use of script-driven guided mental imagery as a symptom provocation technique in patients with PTSD during functional brain imaging.
Bremner JD, Staib LH, Kaloupek D, Southwick SM, Soufer R, Charney DS: Neural correlates of exposure to traumatic pictures and sound in Vietnam combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study. Biol Psychiatry
Zubieta JK, Chinitz JA, Lombardi U, Fig LM, Cameron OG, Liberzon I: Medial frontal cortex involvement in PTSD symptoms: a SPECT study. J Psychiatr Res
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Plotsky PM, Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB: Psychoneuroendocrinology of depression: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Psychiatr Clin North Am
Baker DG, West SA, Nicholson WE, Ekhator NN, Kasckow JW, Hill KK, Bruce AB, Orth DN, Geracioti TD Jr: Serial CSF corticotropin-releasing hormone levels and adrenocortical activity in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:585—588. ** Utilizing serial CSF samples over a 6 hour period in conjunction with urinary cortisol measurement, this study provides the most definitive evidence to date for the discrepant finding that low peripheral cortisol levels persist in PTSD patients despite CRF hypersecretion in the central nervous system.
Liberzon I, Lopez JF, Flagel SB, Vazquez DM, Young EA: Differential regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors mRNA and fast feedback: relevance to post-traumatic stress disorder. J Neuroendocrinol 1999; 11:11—17. * This preclinical rat study suggests that changes in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors may underlie the enhanced HPA axis negative feedback often associated with PTSD. This could explain the enigma of hypocortisolemia despite CRF hypersecretion in patients with PTSD.
Liberzon I, Abelson JL, Flagel SB, Raz J, Young EA: Neuroendocrine and psychophysiologic responses in PTSD: a symptom provocation study. Neuropsychopharmacology
De Bellis MD, Baum AS, Birmaher B, Keshavan MS, Eccard CH, Boring AM, Jenkins FJ, Ryan ND: AE Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology. Part I: Biological stress systems. Biol Psychiatry
Aardal-Eriksson E, Eriksson TE, Holm A-C, Lundin T: Salivary cortisol and serum prolactin in relation to stress rating scales in a group of rescue workers. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46:850—855. * Although the subjects in this study did not have PTSD and the biological methodology was somewhat limited, this study highlights the need for premorbid neurobiological screening in at-risk populations.
Wang S, Mason J: Elevations of serum T3 levels and their association with symptoms in World War II veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: replication of findings in Vietnam combat veterans. Psychosom Med 1999; 61:131—138. * This study builds upon previous work indicating that the HPT axis is hyperactive in patients with PTSD and thus may act to sustain the anxiety associated with the disorder.
Southwick S, Morgan C, Charney D, High J: Yohimbine use in a natural setting: effects on posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry
Gurguis GN, Andrews R, Antai-Otong D, Vo SP, Dikis EJ, Orsulak PJ, Rush AJ: Platelet alpha2
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Kagan BL, Leskin G, Haas B, Wilkins J, Foy D: Elevated lipid levels in Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45: 374—377. * This study would seem to indicate that patients with PTSD may be at higher risk for developing coronary artery disease due to abnormal serum lipid profiles. More importantly, the study identifies what is probably a medically significant consequence of the noradrenergic dysfunction evidenced in PTSD. Similar lipid abnormalities have been demonstrated in panic disorder, another anxiety disorder associated with noradrenergic hyperactivity.
Geracioti TD Jr, West SA, Baker DG, Hill KK, Ekhator NN, Wortman MD, Keck PE Jr, Norman AB: Low CSF concentration of a dopamine metabolite in tobacco smokers. Am J Psychiatry
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Adamec RE, Burton P, Shallow T, Budgell J: NMDA receptors mediate lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior produced by the stress of predator exposure—implications for anxiety associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Physiol Behav 1999; 65:723—737. ** The primary innovation in this study is the application of a predator exposure model in which a rat is placed into a controlled testing environment for a brief period with a cat. This novel approach to traumatic exposure (without harming the test animal) may prove a suitable homologous model for preclinical PTSD research.
Adamec RE, Burton P, Shallow T, Budgell J: Unilateral block of NMDA receptors in the amygdala prevents predator stress-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior and unconditioned startle—effective hemisphere depends on the behavior. Physiol Behav 1999; 65:739—751. * This study also utilized the predator exposure model and indicates that NMDA receptor mediated activity at the amygdala may underlie some aspects of PTSD symptomatology in the aftermath of traumatic exposure.
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Maes M, Lin AH, Verkerk R, Delmeire L, Van Gastel A, Van der Planken M, Scharpe S: Serotonergic and noradrenergic markers of post-traumatic stress disorder with and without major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology
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Charney DS, Deutch AY, Krystal JH, Southwick SM, Davis M: Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry
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Miller AH: Neuroendocrine and immune system interactions in stress and depression. Psychiatr Clin North Am
Maes M, Lin AH, Delmeire L, Van Gastel A, Kenis G, De Jongh R, Bosmans E: Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder following accidental man-made traumatic events. Biol Psychiatry
Aurer A, Aurer-Kozelj J, Stavljenic-Rukavina A , Kalenic S, Ivic-Kardum M, Haban V: Inflammatory mediators in saliva of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis during war stress induced incidence increase. Collegium Antropol
Boscarino JA, Chang J: Higher abnormal leukocyte and lymphocyte counts 20 years after exposure to severe stress: research and clinical implications. Psychosom Med 1999; 61:378—386. * This study builds upon earlier data suggesting that cellular immunity may be enhanced in patients with PTSD. This is in contrast to the preponderance of data indicating that cellular immunity is decreased in patients with major depression. It is unclear whether the immune system differences between the two disorders are related to their differences in peripheral cortisol concentrations.
Wilson SN, van der Kolk B, Burbridge J, Fisler R, Kradin R: Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in PTSD suggests chronic immune activation. Psychosomatics
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