Advances in science are rapidly dispelling both popular and clinical myths about drug abuse and addiction and what to do about them. Some concepts that have made their way into the drug abuse lexicon, such as the fact that initial drug use is a voluntary and therefore preventable behavior, do remain intact. However, other long-standing concepts are being considerably revised. For example, research is showing that although addiction does come about as a result of significant amounts of drug use, there is in fact much more to addiction than just a lot of drug use. Addicts experience true compulsion to use drugs, even in the face of severe negative consequences, and we are gaining substantial insight into the mechanisms which produce that compulsion. Moreover, drug use and addiction are not simply poles of a single gradient along which one slides in either direction over time. Once addicted, one appears to have moved into a different state (1). Also, there is now broad agreement in the clinical research community that addiction is best characterized as a chronic disease that for most people includes occasional relapses (2).